List of abbreviations
of micros-
specialist terms
explained in
English +

Every attempt was made to provide correct information and labelling, however any liability for eventual errors or incompleteness is rejected!

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Dr. med.
H. Jastrow

of use
Overview Mitochondria (Mitochondriae):
Pages with explanations are linked to the text below the images when available
 mitochondrium (crista type) of
a plasma cell (rat)
dark mitochondrium of the
crista type (liver, monkey) 2
mitochondria of the crista type
basal striping of distal
tubular cells (kidney, rat)
basal striping os a proximal
tubular cell (kidney, monkey) 1
basal striping os a proximal
tubular cell (kidney, monkey) 2
dark mitochondrium (crista-type)
of a human plasma cell
dark mitochondria (crista-type)
of a human plasma cell
dark crista-type mitochondria
reticular cell (human)
dark crista-type mitochondria,
lipofuscin-vesicle (human)
mitochondria of the crista-type
RER, human plasma cell
dark mitochondrium
of the crista type (heart)
mitochondrium of the
tubular type (suprarenal gland)
dark mitochondria of
the crista-type (liver)
tubular mitochobdria of the zona
fasciculata of the suprarenal gland
saccular mitochondria of the
suprarenal gland (rat)
lysosome + saccular mito-
chondria suprarenal gland (rat)
overview mitochondria, saccular
type suprarenal gland (rat)
detail of this
intermediate type with prisms
(astrocyt, rat)
dark mitochondria of
the crista-type (liver)
Granulosa lutein cell with tubu-
lar mitochondrion type (Ratte)
crista-type mitochondrium +
synapse (cortex cerebri, rat)
tubular mitochondria of rods
in the retina (rat)
small  dark mitochondria
(Clara-cell, bronchus, rat)
A mitochondrion (Terminologia histologica: Mitochondrion) is a cell organelle of eucaryotes with ovoid shape that is the major source for intracellular energy. Mitochondria are present in all but mature red blood cells. They can migrate through the cytoplasm and change their shape. These organelles have an outer unit membrane (membrana mitochondrialis externa) and an inner membrane (membrana mitochondrialis interna). The latter has protrusions into the matrix (mitochondrial plasma).
Depending on the appearance of the inner membrane mitochondria are classified as:
- mitochondrion of the crista-type (most common, with crest-like protrusions),
- mitochondrion of the tubular-type (in cells synthesising steroids, with larger tubular protrusions),
- mitochondrion of the prismatic-type (present only in rat astrocytes, here the tubuli show triangular profiles)
- mitochondrion of the saccular-type (present only in cells of the fasciculate zone of the suprarenal gland, saccular pearl-like protrusions of the tubuli)
- further there are intermediate forms of crista and tubulus type.
Depending on its protein content the matrix of mitochondria may be dark or bright. In cells of the bone and occasionally in other cells electron dense granules, 25 - 50 nm in diameter, consisting of phospholipids and rich in calcium are present. Mitochondria have their own DNA and RNA necessary for synthesis of specific mitochondrial proteins and autoreproduction. Usually mitochondria are present at intracellular locations where energy is required. They contain specific enzymes, e.g. of the citrate-cycle and for oxidation of fatty acids. Energy is used for synthesis of Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP).
Mitochondrial half-life is thought to be about 5-12 days.

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Some pictures were kindly provided by Prof. H. Wartenberg; other images, page & copyright H. Jastrow.