List of abbreviations
of micros-
specialist terms
explained in
English +

Every attempt was made to provide correct information and labelling, however any liability for eventual errors or incompleteness is rejected!

dieser Seite

Dr. med.
H. Jastrow

of use
Overview blood cells:
Pages with explanations are linked to the text below the images if available! (Labelling is in German)
red blood cells
w h i t e   b l o o d   c e l l s   ( l e u k o c y t e s )
lymphocytes monocytes
with rod-like nuclei
with segmented nuclei
number per
1 litre of blood
m:  4.4 - 6.0 x 1012
w:  3.8 - 5.2 x 1012
0,52 x 109 (mean) 3,0 x 109 (mean) 0,15 x 109 (mean) 0,03 x 109 (mean) 2,5 x 109 (mean) 0,43 x 109 (mean) 250 x 109 (mean)
150 - 400 x 109
frequency in differential
white blood count
- 9,5 % (mean) 40,5 % (mean) 3,2 % (mean)
0 - 7 %
0,6 % (mean)
0 - 2 %
36,0 % (mean)
20 - 50 %
7,1 % (mean)
3 - 9 %
diameter 7,5 µm (mean) 9-12 µm 9-12 µm (mean) 11 - 14 µm 8 - 11 µm 7 - 10 µm 12 - 20 µm 1 - 4 µm
average single
cell volume
82 - 96 µm³ (femtolitres) ca. 320 µm³ (femtolitres)  ca. 320 µm³ (femtolitres) ca. 400 µm³ (femtolitres) ca. 270 µm³ (femtolitres) 230 µm³ (femtolitres) 470 µm³ (femtolitres) 6 µm³ (femtolitres)

The table shows all major blood cells (Terminologia histologica: Haemocyti) which make up about 45% of the blood volume. This value (percentage of blood cells from blood volume) is called hematocrit and is 50-60 in new-borns, 30-40 in small children and 40-50 in human adults. Red blood cells (erythrocytes; Terminologia histologica: Erythrocyti, Haematiae) are distinguished from white blood cells (Leucocytes; Terminologia histologica: Leucocyti) and platelets (thrombocytes; Terminologia histologica: Thrombocyti) which are no complete cells but fragments segregated from megacaryocytes. Leucocytes comprise the following cells: lymphocytes (Terminologia histologica: Lymphocyti), monocytes (Terminologia histologica: Monocyti), neutrophilic granulocytes (neutrophils, segmented neutrophilic granulocytes; Terminologia histologica: Granulocyti neutrophili, Neutrophili, Granulocyti neutrophili segmentonucleares), eosinophilic granulocytes (eosinophils; Terminologia histologica: Granulocyti acidophili, Eosinophili) and basophilic granulocytes (basophils; Terminologia histologica: Granulocyti basophili, Basophili). Besides the cells mentioned before about 22 - 139 reticulocytes (Terminologia histologica: Reticulocyti) precursors of erythrocytes still containing small numbers of cell organells like mitochondria, Golgi-vesicles or lysosomes) are present per nl (0,9 - 2,3 % in differential white blood count). Further, considerably less plasma cells and hardly any precursors of leucocytes or hematopoetic stem cells are seen in normal blood.
Blood cell formation takes place in the red bone marrow under normal conditions. However, during ontogenesis, i.e. in embryos it primarily occurs in the yolk sac then it migrates into liver and spleen. As soon as the bones begin with chondral ossification in fetuses blood cell formation begins to completely move into the bone marrow. Finally, under normal conditions, the red bone marrow takes over the entire blood cell formation.
Blood cells are transported and circulated through the body in blood vessels. However, all leukocytes are capable to leave the vessels and to migrate into differnt kinds of connective tissue as well as into several epithelia.
The blood plasma (Terminologia histologica: Plasma sanguinis) is the fluid, cell-free portion of the blood which makes up about 54 - 56% of the blood volume. It contains 6.5 to 8% of proteins and 1 % of other components like hormones, lipoids, sugars, electrolytes and vitamins. Fibrinogen (haemostasis factor I), a 340 KD elongate glycoprotein of 6 polypeptid chains comprises about 2.5% of the entire plasma proteins and has a value of 3 g/L. Prothrombin a vitamin K-dependent protease deriving from hepatocytes (72 KDa) has a concentration of 0,1-0,15 g/L in plasma. The colloidosmotic pressure of blood plasma usually is 25 mm Hg.
If the blood plasma is deprived from the coagulation factors and substances involved in coagulation it is called blood serum (missing in Terminologia histologica; proposal: Serum sanguinis). In other words this is the remaining fluid after clotting.

--> Blood vessels, Blood barriers
--> Electron microscopic atlas Overview
--> Homepage of the workshop

Images, page & copyright H. Jastrow.