List of abbreviations
of micros-
specialist terms
explained in
English +

Every attempt was made to provide correct information and labelling, however any liability for eventual errors or incompleteness is rejected!

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Dr. med.
H. Jastrow

of use
Overview muscle tissues (Textus muscularis):
Pages with explanations are linked to the underlined text
 differential diagnosis striated  smooth
skeletal muscle
heart muscle
smooth muscle
sample image

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click the name
above the image,

nuclei very many, close to cell membrane 1-2, rarely more located centrally only 1 in the centre of the cell
nuclear diameter and form 8-10 µm, lens-like ~ 12 µm, ovoid 10-25 µm, rod-like, corkscrew-like when contracted
order of filaments exactly parallel (striation) exactly parallel (striation) net-like (no striation)
Cohnheim fields yes yes no
cell form and length cylindric, up to 15 cm Y-like branched, 50-120 µm spindle-like, 50-200 µm, in uterus maximal 700 µm
tubular system Triads: L-T-L tubules Dyads: L-T or T-L tubules, rarely triads none
sarkoplasmatic reticulum
= L-tubules
very many many not present but caveolae
mitochondria small, electron-dense, many very large, electron-dense, very many small, less electron-dense, rare, only close to nuclei
power very strong moderate small, shorten about 20 % of total length
duration only some minutes of full power never ending change of contraction & release contraction for hours possible
innervation controlled by mind  autonomous  autonomous, low frequency of own activity
stimulation controlled by motor neurons influenced by autonomic nerves (& hormones) influenced by autonomic nerves & hormones
motor end plates present none, stimuli conducted by gap-junctions none, stimuli conducted by gap-junctions
regeneration possible thanks to satellite cells none in practice (no satellite cells) easy by mitosis
specialities: Type 1 fibres = red fibres
higher endurance, much myoglobin, thinner
Type 2 fibres = white fibres
faster, less myoglobin, thicker
striated discs caveolae, dense plaques, dense bodies
synthesis of prostacycline and elastic fibres

All muscle cells derive from myogenic stem cells (Terminologia histologica: Cellulae myogenicae precursoriae) which only in case of skeletal muscle begin to fuse in order to from a large syncythium. Only a small portion of these stem cells is maintained as attached satellite cells. In heart and smooth muscle practically all myogenic stem cells further differentiate to become mature myocytes. This is the reason for no efficient regeneration of these muscle tissues in case of damage.

--> other basic kinds of tissue: epithelia, connective tissue, nerve tissue
--> Electron microscopic atlas Overview
--> Homepage of the workshop

Images, page & copyright H. Jastrow.